Things you need to build a beautiful house

The house is the one place in the whole world which you can count on. Like the family, no matter what happens, people come and go, but the family remains. This is what is special about them. Similarly, no matter where you go, you know that there is one place in the whole world which belongs to you and you have to return to that place. This is the reason why so many people are interested in making their house comfortable and beautiful, so that they can find peace in it. Following are the few things which can help you with that:


When it comes to building your own house or even buying it from someone, people always want to have their house look better and this becomes necessary when you are building one. We know that this is the only place that belongs to us in the entire world and we can decorate or make it in our own way. This is the reason why people consult the best interior designers for the unique ideas for their houses. One of the best ways to give your house to give a good look is by using pilings. They make your house look elegant.

·Deck Lumber:

If you are planning to build a house which is so beautiful, you can think of adding deck lumber to that. These can make your house so elegant and unique. The best part about using them is that if they get damaged, you can make them repair and it won’t you so much. As compared to the hard concrete floor, they are much comfortable and replaceable. So do give it a thought too.

·Doors and windows:

Another way to make your house look good is by choosing the best doors and windows for your house. They can alone change the look of your house and you will be astonished about that. There are different steel and aluminum stylish locks available for the doors, which add up to the beauty. So search for them before buying any stuff.

·Wooden grills:

If you have a terrace, then having a wooden grill in your house would be an awesome idea. They add up to the grace of your house and help to give it a classic look. No matter in which year you are living, they do not get old. Plus, they are the most reliable thing that can be installed with the deck lumber.

·Stylish accessories:

There are other kinds of stylish accessories that you can use to decorate your house. Like you can check the different kinds of chandeliers and install them in your entrance,hallway or living room. Use unique color bulbs in it and see how they will add up to the beauty of your house. Have you ever seen the houses which are illuminated by the beam of light beside the sea shores and hill stations? They have been installed with unique bulbs which distinguish them from the surrounding.

Top Tips for Buying Your Dream Home Abroad

Buying a property is fantastically exciting, but it can also be a real headache, especially when your dream home happens to be located in another country. Although the idea of living somewhere new and starting afresh can be intoxicating, there are plenty of practicalities to consider, and you must make sure that you don’t allow your heart to rule your head.

To help you approach your purchase in the right way, we’ve created this brief guide to buying overseas…

#1: Do Your Research

No matter where you choose to purchase property, it will always be important to do your research, and this is never more essential than when you’re buying abroad and unfamiliar with the area. Before going any further with a potential sale, go home after viewing and research local facilities and transport. Look at the property’s proximity to restaurants, shops, beaches, schools, and any other amenities that might be important to you. It can be a good idea to speak to some friendly locals too, to help you form a better understanding of what it would be like to live there all year round, not just when the sun is shining.

#2: Seek Legal Advice

Before progressing with a sale, you should enlist the services of an English-speaking solicitor who is not connected to the seller, estate agent, or developer. Unlike you, they will have an expert understanding of the country’s laws and processes, and can guide you through the sale, ensuring that every box is ticked before you buy. They’ll also be able to explain the contract to you in terms that you understand, so that there is no ambiguity or misunderstanding on your part.

#3: Consider Exchange Rate Fluctuations

We should also point out that you need to be fully informed of the impact that exchange rate fluctuations could have on the purchase price. These can make a huge difference in terms of the relative value of a property, but more than this, they can impact your monthly mortgage payments and future rental income in the long-term. For this reason, it will often be advisable to finance your purchase with the aid of a local mortgage provider where borrowing is necessary.

#4: Think About the Practicalities

Transferring your life from one country to another is an incredibly complex undertaking, and not only will you require the services of a specialist international removals company like 1st Move International, but you’ll also need to brush up your foreign language skills, find local schools and a doctors surgery for you and the family, fly your pets over, and much more. Take care of as many of these hurdles as you can before you move, so that once you arrive the settling in period is as stress-free as possible.

Follow these top tips today to make your dream property purchase go as smoothly as it can.


Safety Concerns of a Roofer

One of the greatest concerns of a roofer is safety. Safety could mean the difference between life and death for a roofer. One of the more regrettable issues for a roofer is been careful when on a steep roof. Each roofer ought to practice and instruct their representatives to focus on the safety of the roofers, as well as to the property holder and to the employment site too. The significance of safety infers that the roofing organization who coordinates this into their organization and considers this as their above all else need. By roofers standing the best possible safety controls implies that they think about their organization, as well as think about the prosperity of the employment site. An expert roofing organization dependably considers safety as something that helps them get merited regard from their associates, and the mishaps that may happen are diminished, which thus up’s their notoriety in being a mischance free and more gainful roofing organization.

Safety judgment skills are another piece of rehearsing roofer safety. Roofers ought to take as much time as necessary when working, as working so quick and attempting to take care of business speedier than it ought to complete will undoubtedly convey unnecessary mischances to the employment site. Fitting safety to the distinctive activities that are occurring is another approach to maintaining a strategic distance from mischances. This incorporates chatting with the roofers and having a shared comprehension of them concerning the safety significance on that specific occupation site. Likewise, debilitate unsafe work hones. Showing others how it’s done will likewise help the roofing representatives know, comprehend, and execute them into their own particular work while at work site.

Keeping your occupation site clean. This ought to be a sound judgment to anybody, yet you would be astounded at exactly what number of roofers don’t mull over keeping the occupation site perfect and sorted out. Fewer perils, for example, stumbling, and recognizing all risk regions and maintaining a strategic distance from them makes for an expert employment and group. The most beneficial occupation destinations are checked and continually being tidied up by the tidy up team so the employment just streams better.

Electrical wiring has asserted numerous passing of roofers in light of metal ladders being set up close to these electrical wires. Never trust power, power can set out starting with one wire then onto the next wire, even ladders that are set up a few feet away. Keep dependably a non-conductive ladder at work site. Stay away from these electrical wires.

When you climb a ladder, there is a legitimate way, and a beginner way, that is the thing that sets the expert from the novice. Continuously keep your face towards the ladder, utilize both hands, venture on one rung at once, and never slide down a ladder, this is extremely amateurish. Ensure your boots/shoes are spotless of any oils and soil and tar. Try not to over-burden ladders, just a single roofer at once please on a ladder for safety’s purpose.

To wrap things up, treatment of material ought to be finished with obvious safety. Utilize your legs while lifting substantial materials, dependably utilize your legs, never your back. Lift one package at once, don’t over-burden your back, and store materials near the roof, the nearer to the roof, the less demanding and safer it is furthermore requiring less investment and less vitality waste to recover the roofing material.

Home Décor Trends for 2017

If you are having trouble choosing modern furniture for your home, it may help to look at the latest trends. Taking a look at interior design ideas, you can gain the inspiration that you need to redecorate your home.

Pay attention to the following home décor trends for 2017 before you start decorating.

Rescued or Repurposed Furniture

One of the most popular trends that you can expect for the coming year is the use of repurposed furniture.

By taking old or worn furniture and giving it a new paint job or a simple DIY renovation, you can easily breathe new life into tables, shelves, and other furniture.

This is perhaps one of the biggest modern furniture trends, as people are looking for ways to limit their dependency on new products and reduce their carbon footprint.

Stainless Steel Furniture and Home Décor

Stainless steel is also making a comeback – in a big way. Instead of stainless steel appliances, many homeowners and interior designers are incorporating furniture with stainless steel elements.

A few examples of this modern furniture trend include chairs, tables, and couches with stainless steel trim or legs. This is a great option when you are trying to create a contemporary look.

Terracotta Furnishings and Tiles

Terracotta refers to baked earth ceramics. Using terracotta furnishings can give your room a more inviting atmosphere.

The natural earth colors of the terracotta tiles and trim will start to replace the popular choice of using white tiling for a contemporary style. It adds warmth and a little more character to your home.

Upholstered Headboards for Your Bedroom

Another recent trend is the use of upholstered headboards. You may have noticed that several of these modern furniture trends involve styles that help add warmth to the room. The use of upholstered headboards is no exception.

Traditionally, upholstered headboards feature neutral colors with padding and buttons. This should work well with any contemporary or modern furniture for the bedroom.

Natural Textures in Any Room

The next trend to pay attention to is the use of natural textures. This can be applied to any room. Natural textures include woven fabrics and wood grain furnishings. This basically offers a bridge between organic styles and contemporary décor.

You can use natural textures with several of the other trends. For example, combining the natural textures with terracotta tiling brings more warmth to the room. You could also pair natural textures with repurposed furniture.

Watercolor Paintings on Wallpaper

Wallpaper has been out of date for a while, but it is beginning to make its way back into homes. This is thanks to the recent interest in wallpaper that features watercolor paintings.

Instead of attempting to create your own mixture of colors, these watercolor wallpaper designs provide an instant solution for adding depth and texture to your room. The designs cover everything from floral prints to landscapes. You can even find geometric patterns.

Mixed Metal Hardware and Décor

Mixed metal refers to the combination of different metals with other materials and textures. For example, dining room chairs with comfortable padding and gold legs or end tables that combine a glass top with a polished brass frame.

You can also create your own mixed metal accents. Removing boring wooden handles, buttons, and hardware from your furniture and replacing with gold or brass will instantly update your modern furniture.

Flowers Are Going to Appear Everywhere

Anther popular trend is the use of flowers. This does not mean that more people will be displaying real flowers in vases. Instead, it refers to the use of modern furniture and home décor with designs inspired by flowers.

This includes ceiling fans and light fixtures designed to resemble flowers or home décor with floral prints. This is somewhat of a throwback to the styles of the 1980’s. In fact, quite a few of these modern trends borrow heavily from the styles of the past several decades.

The Color Green is the Color of 2017

The final trend to discuss is the use of the color green. This will be the big color for 2017. You will see lots of green lampshades, green wallpaper prints, and even green furniture.

Again, you can easily combine the use of green furnishings with the other trends. Green complements the natural hues of terracotta furniture and works well with mixed metals.

2017 will bring comfort. That is the main word for the latest trends. People are looking for more comfortable styles.

You should now have a few ideas to help inspire your interior decorating. One of the best ways to begin renovating a room is to start with a central piece. Choose the most important piece of modern furniture in the room and find complementary furnishings to help highlight the best elements of your focal point.

Good luck with your renovations and do not forget to plan out your decorating ideas before getting started.


Winters: Perfect Time to Prepare Your Garden

Winter means time to gear up to maintain your garden! Plants become dormant under snow and frost. The foliage of annual flowers and vegetables, that if left out, cause pathogens, disease and insects during the winter. Make sure you treat your garden well during winters to make it ready for hot summer!

Don’t you exactly know how to start the work? No problem!

Oeco Garden Rooms is suggesting following handy tips for your beautiful garden:

  1. Lawn Maintenance:

Prepare your lawn for the summer ahead. Winter is best time because soil is activated during winters absorbs energy and nutrients that are essential for plants.

  • Clear all the grass.
  • Dig out the whole area; rake it properly and let it get settled.
  • Make sure you spread the clumps of soil to give the best base for the lawn.
  • Keep the lawn clean and well treated with herbicides. Make sure weeds don’t pop out.
  • Mow the lawn regularly during winters. Length of the grass should be kept at a medium to let the sunlight reach properly.
  • Never forget to rake the fallen leaves lest it should cause fungal diseases.
  1. Don’t Ignore the Plants:

The plants don’t die in winters. They become dormant. So, make sure that:

  • The dead stems and foliage are cleared from the garden. Remember, they spread diseases.
  • Mulch is life line of winter garden and must be spread all over the garden. It will help retain moisture, prevent erosion and enrich the soil for plants.
  1. Secure The Equipments:

Since, winter is time for rest, mowers and other heavy lawn equipments are not required. So, before storing them, see carefully that:

  • Battery is removed
  • It is out of fuel. If not, make it!
  • Blades are clean.
  • External pipes of machines are covered with plastic of any coarse fabric.
  • It is kept in dry place.
  • Tools are lubricated to prevent corrosion.

The Latest Trends in Garden Maintenance:

Carefully maintained garden deserves to be beautifully decorated. Here are some of the suggestions:

  1. Landscaping:

One of the best ideas for your garden is landscaping. This is highly time and moneysaving option for your garden. It keeps you from the tedious task of mulching, pruning, trimming and mowing the garden. To create beautiful environment, you should go with this idea. It requires little maintenance.

  1. Keep Pots and Containers:

If you are fed up of large berry bushes and want to make more space, get used to pots. Place the berry pots wherever you like in the garden. You can even hang them. They are easy to maintain and great idea to give a unique touch.

  1. Little Kitchen Garden:

Herbs are popular as well as very useful. They can be grown in quite small areas like window sills or small pots.

  1. Garden Rooms:

This idea is also becoming popular, especially for those who want to make home office or need sometime alone for their hobbies. Insulated garden rooms give a decorated look and can be used in all seasons.

  1. The Garden Gadgets:

Tech-oriented gardens always seem attractive. Plant sensors, automated sprinkles, robot lawn mowers, blowers, solar tiles or scarecrow can be good options to decorate your garden.

Why should you install a geothermal heating system in your house


The environment that we live in today needs a lot of caring. There is so much pollution caused by the traffic and industries, there are so many people who have gotten sick because of the polluted air that is in the environment. So many appliances that we use today are contributing towards global warming Etc. We need to pay attention to the things that are harmful to the environment. Many times, we use appliances and machinery that release toxins in the air. These appliances have become our necessity. Also, these appliances also consume a lot of energy and are very costly. We need to find an effective solution to this problem.

During the winter season, we all need a central heater as well as heated water. For that purpose, we use heat suppliers that consume a lot of energy. These appliances also cost a lot of money. Similarly, in the summers we have to use the air conditioners in the cool air.  We cannot just quit using these things because these things are necessary for us. However, there is one thing we can do. And that thing is we can use geothermal heating. Geothermal heating has taken the world in its grasp. It is highly cost effective and also does the work that is required by it.

The best thing about the geothermal heating is that it can reduce your energy costs by up to 80%, if not more. It has a very simple working method. Basically, geothermal heating system absorbs all the heat stored in the ground. That water which circulates in its underground loop. This heat is then sent as warm, cozy and comfortable air throughout your home. The same concept can also be used to get cold air and water from the geothermal cooling system. This way not only you will be getting warm air as well as heated water in winters,but you will also be saving on energy costs. That is because,the geothermal heating and cooling systems absorb the heat from pure solar energy. The solar heat is enough thermal energy that will be needed by the geothermal heating system. You are also reducing any release of toxin chemicals from this device. That is because it is using the solar energy to do its work. This solar energy is stored in the ground.

A lot of people are buying geothermal heating systems because they are very budget friendly. Also, here it will good to mention that they are very environmentally friendly as well. This geothermal heating system if efficiently placed and installed can save you a lot of money on energy costs. This heating system provides enough supply of heating and hot water to the whole household during the entire winter season. So, if you are thinking of getting a heating system or a separate cooling system, rethink your decision, with the geothermal heating cooling system you can witness the pay off for your self.

Reasons to buy your first home in Sydney

Australia and its cities have constantly been rated as the best destinations in the world to visit or live in. On its east coast you will find its most famous city, Sydney. This magnificent city is known for its paradise beaches as well as its multiculturalism, with approximately 250 different languages spoken.

Who wouldn’t want to wake up with the most gorgeous nature of the world at their doorstep anyway, right? In Sydneysiders can enjoy salty sunrises, summer festivals, rainforests, art, music, nightlife, the Tasman Sea to the East and the Blue Mountains to the West. Sydney is a city you’ll grow to love from the first time you lay your eyes on it.

Financing your first home. As you may have already know, there are a couple of ways to successfully finance a home. You can choose fixed rate home loans for easy payment schemes that’s tailored to your financial capacity. Home grants are also given to eligible homeowners, so be sure to apply for that as well.

Here’s why you should buy your first home in Sydney:

The money. Australian workers are paid more than most average worker anywhere in the world. The working wages in Australia are more than in New Zealand yet less than in England, however, the cost of living is cheaper in Australia than all the other countries. What the Australian receives as wage is sufficient enough in terms of wages and the quality of life.

Sure, it is one of the most expensive places on the planet, but it’s also one of the best reasons to move and stay here for a longer period. Finding a job in Sydney is very easy, depending on your experience and determination. As a plus and as mentioned above, the pay is greater compared to many other countries.

The lifestyle. All the wonders of the city make for a no-dull Monday experience. Sydney’s lifestyle is an amazing balance of mind and body despite people here waking up early and falling asleep late. Hike over mountains, surf on the beach, watch the sunrise, go to a favorite restaurant, watch a film, go to the zoo, beach, or the museum. There’s no end to the things you can discover.

The suburbs. Sydney isn’t all about CBD and Circular Quay. Sydney’s uniqueness shines in the suburbs. The ten most livable suburbs, according to cityhobo include the following:

  1. Bronte – east, beach, relaxed living
  2. Manly – northern beaches, outdoor activities, community
  3. Balmain – inner west, cafe culture, community
  4. Paddington / Woollahra – east, shopping, stylish
  5. Clovelly / Coogee – east, beach, family friendly
  6. Avalon – Northern beaches, relaxed living, older professionals
  7. Surry Hills – east, cafe culture, cool factor
  8. Lane Cove – north shore, parks and harbour, family friendly
  9. Vaucluse – east, harbour, wealthy
  10. Wahroonga – north shore, near nature, wealthy, family friendly

Once you’ve decided to buy your first home in Sydney, it is also one of the best cities to raise a family. Besides the network of villages and suburbs each with plenty of facilities and unique beauty, there are internationally acclaimed schools and plenty of outdoor activities to be had with your children.

Convinced? It’s time to choose a suburb you like and consider fixed rate home loans for easy payment schemes that you can afford. Best of luck!

Checklist Before Moving to Your New Condo

Canadian real estate developer Louie Santaguida was right when he said that condominiums are a more viable option than houses, especially if you are on a budget. Housing costs are at its highest nowadays, after all. Living in a condo also provides great convenience, since they are usually located in the city, often just walking distance to offices and commercial areas.

But before moving into your new condo, there are several things you might want to take note of in order to make your moving day as easy as it can be. Below is a guide that you can use to write your own checklist. Remember, though, that this is just a guide and you can of course add items that you want to make sure you get out of the way before moving:

  • Hire professional and reputable movers. But first, ask for price estimates and check the limits of the insurance. Different moving companies offer different rates.
  • Have your property insurance transferred to your new condo.
  • Call your utility companies to arrange for disconnection at the home you are moving out from.
  • Get a new phone number for your new home or transfer the line.
  • Let your post office know that you are moving so they know where to forward mails and other deliveries in the future. You can even do this online.
  • Let your family members, friends, co-workers and bosses know of changes in your address and contact details.
  • Clean your new condo unit or contact a cleaning company to do it.
  • Confirm delivery details and dates with the moving company you chose to go with.
  • If you are moving out of your current city, pick up the laundry, dry cleaning, prescriptions, etc.
  • Finish packing all of your things. Pack them in boxes and mark the boxes accordingly.
  • Put important documents such as birth certificates, passports, and financial records in a bag or a box with a lock that you will carry yourself.
  • Pack your basic bathroom supplies in the same box and mark them so that you know which box to open first before unpacking everything else.
  • Make sure that the movers understand all of your instructions, and that the boxes are placed carefully inside your new home.
  • Book the service elevator for your move so you don’t inconvenience other residents.
  • Make sure to arrive first at your condo before the movers so that you can directly supervise the move.
  • Check all the boxes to make sure you have taken everything you need and there is nothing left behind.
  • Check your things to see if there are any damaged items.
  • Make sure all utilities are working properly.
  • Set up your basic supplies like your mattresses, pillows, and sheets, towels and other bathroom supplies.





How 55prints proves itself the best printing company?

You will end up with lots of printing companies when you start looking for the best printing company. The reason is that there may be different companies providing the similar services at same prices. So, it becomes difficult to select the one printing company for your business. For businesses, the best option is to select the online printing marketplace. Also, there are many companies out there that provide you the online services. So, here is a simple guide to select the best printing company for you.

  • The company should deliver quality work at competitive prices:

Observably, it is significant to think when you are searching to select the just right printing company israte, that theyproffer their services for. Prices can be different from a company to another, even for the same kind of services. So, it is recommended to make sure that the company offers the competitive prices.Even if the company proffers the best ever services, it won’t be valuable to the client if itis out of budgeted range.

  • Check if the company proffers free delivery:

One more thing that you musttake into consideration when you are searching for the best printing company is whether or not itproffer free delivery.

  • Check the company’s reviews:

A speedy Google search will definitely bring up numerous pages that will tell you about the printing company that whether it is perceived as good or not.

Even though finding a reasonable printing corporation that provides the quality work too, might take some time, so it is essential to consider that you merely have to discover it one time and consequently, it is well worth the effort. Just the once you find out the desired printing company that you are contented and pleased with, you can merely order services to it again and again, without putting efforts in judging it. One more thing to consider when selecting a printing company is the real quality on offer. It may be worth ordering some sample packs from the printing companies to make sure that they proffer quality services.

So, with the entire thing listed above, we came to the point that 55prints proveit the best online printing marketplace for its clients. The reason is that it fulfils all the criteria’s listed above that are necessary for the best printing company. It guarantees its clients above the quality of work done. Also, all the services are provided at the competitive prices, around the country. Secondly, the company offers the facility of free delivery around the country, no matter where you are. It will deliver the things that you order for printing, at your door, within ashort period of time and will not charge even a single penny. Thirdly, the company is confident because it provides 100% customer satisfaction from the last four years. The company has not received even a single complaint about the work quality. Thus proves itself the most excellent printing company around the country.


Online Mattress Companies: What People Are Saying

Mattresses: we all use them, all need them, and all have opinions on them, whether we go online and broadcast them or not. In today’s day and age, it’s important to be as informed a consumer as possible in order to ensure that you’re getting the best deals possible without sacrificing quality. One of the most helpful ways to find out about companies is to look at what other people are saying. The people who leave reviews do so because they felt strongly enough about the produce to take time out of their day and post something online about them, either as a cautionary tale or as a general description of what they thought.

In this article, we will give you a list of the top online mattress retailers, as well as an overview of the general opinion of customers towards these retailers; what they liked, disliked, and which consumer the company fits the best.



Lull has gotten good reviews from customers, particularly those who live in apartments or dorms and like the ultra-convenient bed-in-a-box business model that ships the mattress to them and allows them to open it in-house, without any extra hassle of trying to move it in. Memory foam, comfortability, and value have been what’s earned this relatively new mattress firm its popularity. The Lull mattress works especially well if you favor more than one sleeping position, but it’s not for fans of the traditional spring mattress — Lull is all about premium memory foam and modern construction.


Saatva is a well-known online retailer that specializes in luxury, high-end mattresses. They have been rated well by people because they offer valuable customer service and they also offer online representatives who are able to chat with customers in real time. Saatva mattresses tend to run pretty firm. What Saatva considers to be “soft” is actually rather firm for some people, and this is consistent across the board. Firmness is subjective. Saatva works best for individuals who are able to afford a higher-priced luxury mattress and who have a home with a spacious bedroom (i.e. not a dorm room, apartment, or somewhere smaller.)


Leesa has one model and firmness available. This firmness has proven to be too firm for those who like to sleep on their side, according to the feel from reviews posted on consumer websites. According to reviews, Leesa has an 80% owner satisfaction rating and is lower-priced, something that works well for consumers not looking to break the bank. Leesa also, despite not having a high variation on models, hasn’t been the recipient of a lot of criticism when it comes to back pain. This brand is best for people who don’t need options when it comes to mattress selection and are able to sleep on just about any mattress.


Casper is a newer company. It provides an all-foam mattress with a top, bottom, and middle layer. One common complaint that a lot of people had was that Casper didn’t provide enough cooling for them. If you’re a heavy sleeper or require a mattress that has a lot of cooling power, you may want to consider selecting a different brand, as the common feel from consumers who need a lot of cooling in their mattress was that it was too warm. However, the company itself has gotten good reviews from people who are average sleepers who don’t require a super-cool mattress. The customer review reports for this new company have also looked positive, as people found Casper representatives to be helpful and polite.

Tuft & Needle

The Turf & Needle mattress is built from two different layers of foam. Tuft & Needle sells foam mattresses that aren’t too warm and clunky. The cover of the mattress is made from thin cotton, so if you’re used to more quilted, thick mattress covers, Tuft & Needle is not for you. Tuft & Needle is also not for people who are looking to save money, as their competitors (us) are able to make what they’re making and offer it at a lower price. Turf & Needle’s firmness level, according to consumer reviews, is a 6.6 out of 10, which is a little over medium-firmness. If you require a mattress that is super-firm, Tuft & Needle is not for you.

Your mattress is something that you’re going to use every single night. It is a really important part of your home, and you want to make sure that you know you’re making the right decisions. Every mattress company has its pros and cons, and understanding those and making an informed decision on whether or not you’re right for a company’s brand is up to you. Hopefully, this article has helped you distinguish between the online mattress sellers and see which one best suits your needs.